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Cravens Peak Reserve

The original proposal for a Simpson Desert National Park included Cravens Peak. This reserve protects gibber plains, red sandy dune fields, semi-permanent waterholes, Coolabah woodlands, and one of the richest reptile assemblages on earth. 

While marginal and unpredictable for production, the relatively moist and fertile dune swales and temporary waterbodies are an important oasis for many desert animals that retreat in the dry times from the desert proper. Our protection of Ethabuka and Cravens Peak gives the desert back it's fringe and its refuge for wildlife against the harshest conditions. 

The northern summer rains brush the northern edge of the Simpson, the southern winter rains just brush the south. Erratically, huge systems douse the lot. A large number of regional and international migrant waterbirds follow the rains to make the most of the sudden burst of productivity.

The plants are patient. The gidgea and ironwood will wait a century or two to successfully set a new generation. The spinifex waits decades and the seeds of hundreds of short-lived wildflowers rest under the sand.  

The soft edges of dunes run into large sandy plains and the low, rugged Toko and Tooma ranges, which are rich with fossils 500 million years old. The Mulligan River snakes along the north-eastern boundary of the reserve.

All this has been protected thanks to the generosity of our supporters.

Woma pythonThe woma python. Photo: Jiri Lochman / Lochman Transparencies.
Coolibah woodland at Ethabuka ReserveSpinifex pigeon.
Photo: Aaron Greenville.

What this reserve protects

Cravens Peak is a hot bed for reptiles, including the woma, a rare desert python that has become extinct across a third of its former range. Cravens Peak also protects: 


  • Mulgara (nationally vulnerable)
  • Grey falcon
  • Painted finch
  • Ridge-tailed monitor
  • Inland ningaui
  • Australian bustard
  • Spinifex pigeon
  • Ariadna's ctenotus (a rare skink)


  • Pituri
  • Mulga
  • Coolabah
  • Red-bud mallee

Vegetation communities

  • Hummock (spinifex) grassland
  • Mallee
  • Mitchell-grass plains
  • Gidgee woodland

What we’re doing on the property

Cravens Peak has buildings, bores and hundreds of kilometres of fences and tracks to maintain. Surrounded by farming, its boundaries have to be maintained and incursions of stock responsibly managed.

We're also working with The University of Sydney who are researching specific control techniques for feral predators such as cats and foxes. Feral camels who enter the property from the desert to the south must also be controlled.

While the weed list is small, there is some weed control work and we are vigilant on new intruders.  

Controlled burns at Cravens PeakBurning a firebreak at Cravens Peak Reserve.
Photo by Nella Lithgow.

Fire-stick farming comes full circle

Large-scale and intense wildfires have become an unfortunate characteristic of Australia's arid zones since the removal of traditional Aboriginal fire-stick farming.

They're particularly problematic after big wet seasons, which massively increase plant growth - especially highly flammable grasses such as spinifex.

In the past such growth was kept under control by the Wangkamadla people, who regularly burnt the area as part of their land management.

Now Cravens Peak staff are attempting to reinstate similar patterns of ‘fire-stick' farming, as reserve managers control natural lightning strike ignited burns and implement planned ‘mosaic burns' designed to encourage new growth and act as fire breaks.

Wildfires can seriously affect populations of small native mammals, so fire management is of critical importance. 

Our results

Now that cattle have been removed and damage from feral camels and horses reduced, we're seeing rapid improvement in the Mitchell grass plains and wetland areas. We're also seeing regeneration of the gidgee and mulga woodland vegetation between the dunes. This has led to increases in the numbers of small mammals.

Satellite images have shown plant cover and productivity in the swales between dunes and on the slopes of the ranges is higher than surrounding properties and measurably improved since our purchase of the land.

History and cultural values

Cravens Peak Reserve is part of Wangkamadla country. The Wangkamadla have a long-standing connection to this land, with rock paintings and significant sites scattered across the reserve.

The reserve once lay on a trade route stretching from Queensland's Gulf of Carpentaria all the way to South Australia. The local narcotic plant pituri was traded for stone knives, seashells and even dugong-tusk daggers.

We're working closely with the Wangkamadla people to identify and learn about important cultural values.

Images: 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5
Page Last Updated: Monday 14 July 2014

Map of Cravens Peak Reserve

Detailed map > 

Quick facts

Established: 2005
Area: 233 000 ha
Location: Western Qld, 470km south of Mt Isa

Reserve scorecard


The reserve scorecard is a summary of the reserve's condition based on an ecological review conducted every 5 years.


Studying diversity

Biodiversity of the Simpson Desert


See our visitation page for current and upcoming opportunities to visit our reserves. 

Thank you

Thanks to all our supporters, whose donations fund the management of Cravens Peak.

Cravens Peak Reserve was acquired in 2005 with the assistance of the the Australian Government under the Natural Heritage Trust's National Reserve System Program and The Nature Conservancy.