The Goyder River flows into the swamp from the Mitchel Ranges to the south, along with numerous small streams.
Overflow to the Arafura Sea occurs via the Glyde River winding its way north.
The Mitchell Ranges feature rock art and refugia where species are able to persist during climatic extremes. To the north the coastal landscapes include beaches, mangroves, reefs and islands.
The swamp, its catchment and adjacent sea country support over a thousand species of plants and hundreds of fish, bird, mammal, reptile and other animal species. Its large and diverse wetland habitats support as many as 300,000 birds at any one time.